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Spikefish About Cells

Page history last edited by PBworks 14 years, 6 months ago

About Cells

 

Organelles of a cell receive their nutrients from a specified area of the cell's surface.  Cells can only grow to be of a certain size because as a cell grows, its volume increases much faster than the surface area.  This means that eventually, the cell will not have enough surface area to absorb the needed materials for the volume.  Because of this, cells must be relatively small.

 

 

 

 

 

The two major cell types are prokaryotic cells, which do not have a true nucleus, and eukaryotic cells, which do have a true nucleus.

Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells

~1-10 micrometers in diameter

-small, simple structure

-Organelles are not membrane-bound

-Division by binary fission

-Not complex, commonly single cell organisms

-DNA is in nucleoid region

-Lack of a nuclear membrane

-Has a flagellum

-Missing most organelles (EXCEPT ribosomes)

-Capsule-shaped

-Usually have a cell wall 

~5-100 micrometers in diameter

-Have very large, complex structures

-Membrane-bound organelles

-Division by mitosis and meiosis

-Complex, animal or plant cells

-DNA is in nuclear membrane

-Have a Nucleus

-Have flagella and cilia

-Contains many organelles

-Cell wall only found in plant cells

 Prokaryotic Cell  Animal Cell (Eukaryotic)

 

 

Eukaryotic Cells are highly compartmentalized.  "Compartmentalized" means that membranes divide the cell and its organelles into specific regions where reactions occur.  Enzymes for each reaction are located in these specific "compartments".  The reaction rate can then be altered by controlling the amount of substrate passing through the membranes.  Because of the large amount of reactions that take place inside a eukaryotic cell, there are many different "compartments."

 

 

 

Sources

Blamire, John. "Why are cells so small?." BIOdotEDU. 2001. Brooklyn College. 12 Nov 2007 <http://www.brooklyn.cuny.edu/bc/ahp/LAD/C5/C5_ProbSize.html>.

 

 

 

 

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